Jiang et al. investigated the effects of maternal choline intake on the placental transcriptome, with a special interest in its role in modulating placental vascular function. Healthy third-trimester singleton pregnant women were randomized to choline intake groups of either 480 mg/day or 930 mg/day for 12 weeks. Placental samples were processed at the hospital within 90 minutes of delivery. After removal of the amnion, the placenta was visually divided into 4 quadrants, and full-thickness biopsies were taken from each quadrant.

Tissue Condition Samples
Test placenta 930 mg/day choline supplement 6
Control placenta 480 mg/day choline supplement 6
Gene Fold Change (log2) Significance Genus Species