Jiang et al. investigated the effects of maternal choline intake on the placental transcriptome, with a special interest in its role in modulating placental vascular function. Healthy third-trimester singleton pregnant women were randomized to choline intake groups of either 480 mg/day or 930 mg/day for 12 weeks. Placental samples were processed at the hospital within 90 minutes of delivery. After removal of the amnion, the placenta was visually divided into four quadrants, and full-thickness biopsies were taken from each quadrant.

Tissue Condition Samples
Test placenta 930 mg/day choline supplement 6
Control placenta 480 mg/day choline supplement 6
Gene Fold Change (log2) Significance Genus Species